This gene is a protooncogene that encodes a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell division, adhesion, differentiation, and response to stress. The activity of the protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, whereby deletion of the region encoding this domain results in an oncogene. The ubiquitously expressed protein has DNA-binding activity that is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function. This gene has been found fused to a variety of translocation partner genes in various leukemias, most notably the t(9;22) translocation that results in a fusion with the 5' end of the breakpoint cluster region gene (BCR; MIM:151410). Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants, which contain alternative first exons that are spliced to the remaining common exons. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays a role in many key processes linked to cell growth and survival such as cytoskeleton remodeling in response to extracellular stimuli, cell motility and adhesion, receptor endocytosis, autophagy, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Coordinates actin remodeling through tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins controlling cytoskeleton dynamics like WASF3 (involved in branch formation); ANXA1 (involved in membrane anchoring); DBN1, DBNL, CTTN, RAPH1 and ENAH (involved in signaling); or MAPT and PXN (microtubule-binding proteins). Phosphorylation of WASF3 is critical for the stimulation of lamellipodia formation and cell migration. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility through phosphorylation of key regulators of these processes such as BCAR1, CRK, CRKL, DOK1, EFS or NEDD9. Phosphorylates multiple receptor tyrosine kinases and more particularly promotes endocytosis of EGFR, facilitates the formation of neuromuscular synapses through MUSK, inhibits PDGFRB-mediated chemotaxis and modulates the endocytosis of activated B-cell receptor complexes. Other substrates which are involved in endocytosis regulation are the caveolin (CAV1) and RIN1. Moreover, ABL1 regulates the CBL family of ubiquitin ligases that drive receptor down-regulation and actin remodeling. Phosphorylation of CBL leads to increased EGFR stability. Involved in late-stage autophagy by regulating positively the trafficking and function of lysosomal components. ABL1 targets to mitochondria in response to oxidative stress and thereby mediates mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. ABL1 is also translocated in the nucleus where it has DNA-binding activity and is involved in DNA-damage response and apoptosis. Many substrates are known mediators of DNA repair: DDB1, DDB2, ERCC3, ERCC6, RAD9A, RAD51, RAD52 or WRN. Activates the proapoptotic pathway when the DNA damage is too severe to be repaired. Phosphorylates TP73, a primary regulator for this type of damage-induced apoptosis. Phosphorylates the caspase CASP9 on 'Tyr-153' and regulates its processing in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. Phosphorylates PSMA7 that leads to an inhibition of proteasomal activity and cell cycle transition blocks. ABL1 acts also as a regulator of multiple pathological signaling cascades during infection. Several known tyrosine-phosphorylated microbial proteins have been identified as ABL1 substrates. This is the case of A36R of Vaccinia virus, Tir (translocated intimin receptor) of pathogenic E.coli and possibly Citrobacter, CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) of H.pylori, or AnkA (ankyrin repeat-containing protein A) of A.phagocytophilum. Pathogens can highjack ABL1 kinase signaling to reorganize the host actin cytoskeleton for multiple purposes, like facilitating intracellular movement and host cell exit. Finally, functions as its own regulator through autocatalytic activity as well as through phosphorylation of its inhibitor, ABI1.
| Product Description || Regulates cytoskeleton remodeling during cell differentiation, cell division and cell adhesion. Localizes to dynamic actin structures, and phosphorylates CRK and CRKL, DOK1, and other proteins controlling cytoskeleton dynamics. Regulates DNA repair potentially by activating the proapoptotic pathway when the DNA damage is too severe to be repaired. Phosphorylates PSMA7 that leads to an inhibition of proteasomal activity and cell cycle transition blocks. |
| Tested Applications ||WB IHC IF |
| Image || |
| ||Immunofluorescence staining of methanol-fixed Hela cells using ABL1/2 (phospho-Tyr393/439) Antibody #11530.|
| ||Western blot analysis of extracts from HL60 cells using ABL1/2 (phospho-Tyr393/439) Antibody #11530 and the same antibody preincubated with blocking peptide.|
| Species Reactivities ||Human Mouse |
| Immunogen ||Peptide sequence around phosphorylation site of tyrosine 393/439 (D-T-Y(p)-T-A) derived from Human ABL1/2. |
| Storage Instructions ||Store at -20°C |
| Clonality ||Polyclonal Antibody |
- c-Abl induces stabilization of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in a kinase activity-dependent manner. Aoyama K, et al. Cell Biol Int, 2015 Apr. PMID 25561363
- [Atypical BCR-ABL transcripts in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia--the scheme for the diagnosis and monitoring of minimal residual disease]. Link-Lenczowska D, et al. Przegl Lek, 2014. PMID 25248240
- c-Abl stabilizes HDAC2 levels by tyrosine phosphorylation repressing neuronal gene expression in Alzheimer's disease. Gonzalez-Zuñiga M, et al. Mol Cell, 2014 Oct 2. PMID 25219501
- ABL1 gene involvement within a complex three-way translocation (2;9;4) in perineurioma characterized by molecular cytogenetic methods. Duff DJ, et al. Cancer Genet, 2014 Jun. PMID 25074247
- Identification of a novel SEPT9-ABL1 fusion gene in a patient with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. Suzuki R, et al. Leuk Res Rep, 2014. PMID 25068103 Free PMC Article
- Alternative splicing of RNAs transcribed from the human abl gene and from the bcr-abl fused gene.
Shtivelman E., Lifshitz B., Gale R.P., Roe B.A., Canaani E.
Cell 47:277-284(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM IA), ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, VARIANT PRO-140.
- Nucleotide sequence analysis of human abl and bcr-abl cDNAs.
Fainstein E., Einat M., Gokkel E., Marcelle C., Croce C.M., Gale R.P., Canaani E.
Oncogene 4:1477-1481(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM IA). Tissue: Fibroblast.
- Sequence and analysis of the human ABL gene, the BCR gene, and regions involved in the Philadelphia chromosomal translocation.
Chissoe S.L., Bodenteich A., Wang Y.-F., Wang Y.-P., Burian D., Clifton S.W., Crabtree J., Freeman A., Iyer K., Jian L., Ma Y., McLaury H.-J., Pan H.-Q., Sarhan O.H., Toth S., Wang Z., Zhang G., Heisterkamp N., Groffen J., Roe B.A.
Genomics 27:67-82(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] (ISOFORMS IA AND IB). Tissue: Lung.
- NIEHS SNPs program
Submitted (JUL-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databasesCited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANTS VAL-706; PRO-852; SER-900 AND LEU-972.
- DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9.
Humphray S.J., Oliver K., Hunt A.R., Plumb R.W., Loveland J.E., Howe K.L., Andrews T.D., Searle S., Hunt S.E., Scott C.E., Jones M.C., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Ambrose K.D., Ashwell R.I.S., Babbage A.K., Babbage S., Bagguley C.L. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].